List of World Heritage Sites in Pakistan

Evidence of Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15, years old. More recent excavations point to 30, years before present. This culture survived till BC. Its evidence has been discovered in the hilly regions of Swat and Dir, and even at Taxila. It is said that Lord Rama consolidated the rule of the Kosala Kingdom over the whole of the Indian peninsula. His brothers and sons ruled most of the Janapadas 16 states at that time. The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century.

A Quick Guide to the Different Types of Archaeology

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century. Indo-Greeks built a new capital, Sirkap , on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city’s autonomous coinage.

Kushan[ edit ] In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh.

Other historical and archaeological sites like ancient India’s Taxila and Nalanda universities may date back further, and ancient Sumerian societies first began incorporating scribal schools.

Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Consequently, after three years of nearly constant fighting in the mountains of Bactria and Sogdiana and the Kabul valley, the Macedonians found themselves on friendly territory at last, and they eagerly absorbed the attractions of a strange and exhilarating culture. Not least among these were the stern, detached, and naked ascetics whom the Greeks dubbed “gymnosophists. Our sources are careful to mention this because it was a tactical blunder Arr.

Onesicritus, Naked Wise Men71 another, the gymnosophists left an indelible impression on the memories of the Westerners who rested at Taxila those three months, and in particular those of the Greek philosophers on Alexander’s staff; their interest is attested by a considerable body of tales and anecdotes preserved for us in a variety of sources from later antiquity. As we shall see, most of this literature is ultimately Cynic in origin; and the purpose of this paper is to examine the tales of the gymnosophists with a view to recovering and reconstructing the early Cynic view of the gymnosophists , which in turn will lead us to the early Cynic portrait of Alexander.

William L. Simon

Alexander promoted a fusion of cultures and his successors endeavored to adopt the cultures and blend in to their conquered environments. So too did Demetrios I, a young king of Greek origin, establish the wealthy city of Sirkap, in present-day Pakistan where excavations reveal a rich fusion of Greek and Indian cultures. Whilst the Seleucid Empire to the west was conquered, to the north-east of the Mauryan Kingdom lay the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, — BC encompassing Bactria and Sogdiana north of present-day Afghanistan and on the border of Uzbekistan.

The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar Valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Gandhara; sometimes the Swat Valley (Sanskrit: Suvāstu) was also heart of Gandhara, however, was always the Peshawar kingdom was ruled from capitals at Kapisa (), Pushkalavati (), Taxila, Puruṣapura (Peshawar) and in its final days from.

Leben[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Chandragupta herrschte von ca. Sein Nachfolger war sein Sohn Bindusara. Ihm folgte wiederum, nach heutigem Forschungsstand im Jahr v. Jede Aggression ablehnend, strebte er fortan nach freundschaftlichen Beziehungen mit seinen Nachbarn wie den Seleukiden und den Griechen in Baktrien. Allerdings scheint Ashoka keine grundlegende Reform der indischen Gesellschaft, verbunden mit einer klaren Zielvorstellung, betrieben zu haben; vielmehr ging es wohl um die Festlegung eines Standards von sozialem Verhalten.

Ein Felsedikt beginnt mit den Worten: Widerstand bedrohte er sogar mit dem Tode. Im Zentrum lag Magadha mit der Reichshauptstadt Pataliputra. Buddhistische Quellen besagen, dass sich die Zerfallserscheinungen schon in den letzten Jahren unter Ashoka bemerkbar machten. Unter seiner Patronage fand im Jahre v.

Gandhara Civilization

Start the gallery Scroll to view the gallery Credit: Thomas Buttery This labyrinth of interconnecting alleyways and streets, fountains, souks and courtyards has remained much the same since the city’s rapid expansion during the Marinid dynasty in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Chris Griffiths Although dilapidated ruins of once-grand riad homes can be found around almost every corner, the Moroccan government has recently been investing more money into restoring the medina, which today is considered one of the best-preserved historical towns in the Arab-Muslim world.

A short walk around the medina reveals intricately carved Islamic calligraphy and mesmerising zellige mosaics — individually chiselled tiles placed in geometric patterns — that line the walls of mosques, Koranic schools and mausoleums. It is also the first degree-granting educational institution in the world.

Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला, IAST: Takṣaśilā, meaning “City of Cut Stone” or “Takṣa Rock”) is an important archaeological site of ancient India, located in Taxila city, Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about 32 km (20 mi) north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

Although the term Kushan is known in ancient sources, it is often used to refer to a dynasty other than the one designated by modern historians. Chinese chronicles employed the term Yuezhi, and at least one Indian source Pargiter, , p. Even the term Kushan as it appears on coins—koshano in Bactrian —is absent on the coins of two kings of the dynasty, while it is employed liberally among their contemporaries, the Kushano-Sasanian, or Kushanshah, kings and the Kidarites.

In addition, many 3rd-century and later sources use the term to describe the region of Bactria. The cohesion of the group rests on establishing either that the coins were issued successively, in most cases from the same mints, or that the kings named are related to each other by epigraphic evidence. Today, modern constructs include thirteen kings who ruled from the mid-1st century until the late fourth, although exact details can vary cf.

In the late 19th century when Alexander Cunningham wrote the first account of Kushan coinage , he included only five kings: Some coins of Kujula and those of his son Wima Takto were classified instead as Saka Cunningham, , pl. The final kings are still absent in many accounts, because the attribution of their coinage and the identification of Shaka in a Gupta-period inscription were made only recently Cribb, , p.

The coins issued under these kings are presented below in chronological order. The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent, and epigraphic relations will be referred to where significant. Where possible, type numbers for this publication will be included in the description of coins. However, the volume is not complete:

The Spiritual Center of Taxila: One-time Jerusalem and Alexandria of the Buddhist World

These all rivers end up in Panjnad and finally into Arabian Sea. During Mahabharata times Punjab was known as Panchanda. For more than years Punjab remained under Indus valley civilization. The main site of civilization was Harrapa. Taksh, the son of Bharat founded Taxila and Taxila reputed house of oldest university in the world.

Taxila Museum is located 35 km from Islamabad on the Grand Trunk Road to Peshawar. It is famous for remains of Gandhara art. Most of the sites at Taxila, dating back BCE to CE, are located around the Taxila Museum.

Historical City Texila Definition: The site includes numerous related buildings, fortifications, settlements and monasteries, and shows architectural influences for the length of its role as a Buddhist training center, between the 5th century BC through the 2nd century AD. The capital was conquered by several groups, including Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.

As a result, Persian, Greek and Asian influences are visible in the ruins of the city. Taxila Museum is located at Texila, Punjab, Pakistan. Construction of Taxila museum started in , its foundation stone laid by Lord Chemsford, vicery of India in Construction was concluded in and the museum was opened for public by Sir Habibullah then the ministry for Education.

Sir John Marshall who was going to be retired from the post of Director General of Archaeological survey of India in , could not complete its original plan. The government of Pakistan constructed the northern gallery in There are objects displayed, including stone, stucco, terracotta, silver, gold, iron and semiprecious stones.

Descendants of Lord Rama in the War of Mahabharata

Known as the Taxila Cross , it was found in just outside the ruins of Sirkap, the second city of Taxila, and is commonly believed to signify that Christianity had taken root in the subcontinent shortly after the crucifixion of Christ. According to this document, St Thomas having been assigned by Jesus to teach the gospel in India, arrived by boat at the seaside capital of King Gondophares.

Working miracles, he successfully converted the king and all his subjects to Christianity. Now, whenever the Acts was compiled and even in when it surfaced in Syria, Taxila had not yet been discovered.

Gandhara is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in modern day northern Pakistan and parts of eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River.

We have already discussed the arts of the Mauryan period in the previous article. This post also deals with some of the important architectural sites such as Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, etc. You not only will learn the important facts related to Indian culture, but will also start to love the subject! The period also marked the rise of the main Brahmanical sects such as the Vaishnavas and Shaivas.

Places where important sculptures are seen Some of the finest sculptures of this period are found at Vidisha, Barhut M. Barhut Barhut sculptures are tall like the images of Yaksha and Yakshini in the Mauryan period. Modelling of the sculpture volume is in low relief maintaining linearity. Relief panels are depicted by narratives and clarity in the narratives are enhanced by selecting main events. Narrative panels are shown with fewer characters, but as the time progress, apart from the main character in the story, others have also started appearing in the picture space.

Availability of space is utilized to the maximum by the sculptors. Narrative reliefs at Barhut show how artisans used the pictorial language very effectively to communicate stories. The queen is reclining on the bed, whereas an elephant is shown on the top heading towards the womb of the queen Mayadevi. Such Jataka stories became part of stupa decoration.

State of Conservation

The main ruins of Taxila are divided into three major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period. The oldest of these is Bhir Mound , which dates from the sixth century B. The second city of Taxila is located at Sirkap and was built by Greco-Bactrian kings in the second century B. The third and last city of Taxila is at Sirsukh and relates to the Kushan kings.

In addition to the ruins of the city, a number of buddhist monasteries and stupas also belong to the Taxila area.

Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला, IAST: Takṣaśilā, meaning “City of Cut Stone” or “Takṣa Rock”) is an important archaeological site of ancient India, located in Taxila city, Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about 32 km (20 mi) north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

Stone age[ edit ] Evidence of the Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15, years old. More recent excavations point to 30, years before the present. Gandhara Kingdom , Indo-Aryan migration , and Vedic civilization Gandhara was an ancient kingdom of the Peshawar Valley, extending between the Swat valley and Potohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of northeastern Afghanistan.

In an archaeological context, the Vedic period in Gandhara corresponds to the Gandhara grave culture. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas of ancient India. The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar.

An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century.

Encyclopædia Iranica

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century.

The Committee examined the state of conservation of the site, and adopted the following: The Committee noted the Reports submitted by the State Party, ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre concerning the state of conservation of the Taxila World Heritage site.

There is debate over whether the center of learning that emerged in Taxila was a university in the modern sense. There were teachers and associated students but the teachers do not appear to have been directly affiliated with any college. The school mainly consisted of a group of monasteries where students came to be taught by well-known scholars and monks. The curriculum was a mixture of religious and secular education. The school is also where many famous intellectuals studied and taught, including Chanakya who was one of the strategic masterminds behind the building of the Maurya Empire.

He is also known for having written a seminal treatise on economics. Corruption and Corrosion of the Ideal The reason for the eventual decline of the city appears to be due to a mixture of the White Hun invasion and the decline of Buddhism in the region. For centuries, the region had maintained its cultural identity and hegemony in the face of foreign invasion after foreign invasion due a unifying religion, Buddhism.

Statue of Buddha at Jaulian Public Domain For a thousand years, the monasteries had guided the region culturally and spiritually and had kept it together as a coherent urban center.

The Horizons of Pakistan – TAXILA (The city of Cut Stones)